Reproductive medicine is both a well-studied and constantly evolving field. As problems grow, new various infertility treatment methods emerge, complex infertility treatment is applied. Currently, we can talk about a vanishingly small percentage of really insurmountable reproductive problems in a couple. We dedicate this article to a review of methods and their predictions.
Comprehensive infertility treatment and other various infertility treatments
Important! First of all, we clarify when you should consult a doctor if you cannot conceive a child. For couples in which the woman is younger than 35, the warning sign is not getting pregnant within 12 months. For couples in which woman’s age starts from 35 years old – no pregnancy for 6 months. You do not necessarily need infertility treatment, perhaps, for conception it will be enough to change something in the way of life. But a doctor’s consultation is a must.
Comprehensive infertility treatment is becoming increasingly important. This is due to an increase in the number of couples where both partners have fertility problems. It is also not uncommon for female infertility treatment involves the elimination of multiple pathologies. However, in any case infertility treatment always starts with examinations.
Examination program for treatment of female infertility includes:
- Examination by a gynecologist, examination of the mammary glands.
- Tests for STIs and hormones.
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs.
- Cytological examination of smears from the vagina, cervix, cervical canal.
In addition, it is necessary to visit a therapist and get a referral to narrow specialists if there are any chronic diseases or the results of tests indicate the need for specialized examinations.
Very often, women who dream of becoming a mother underestimate the importance of lifestyle. Excessive or critically low body weight, intense physical activity, chronic stress, overwork, occupational hazards, and even disturbed sleep can reduce fertility, making conception impossible. Therefore, in some cases normalization of a way of life will be infertility treatment method.
In other cases female infertility treatment depends on the reasons. There are the following main types:
- Primary and secondary;
- Absolute and relative;
Primary infertility refers to the failure of pregnancy in a woman who is trying to get pregnant for the first time. Secondary infertility is the inability to conceive again after the birth of one or more children.
Treatment of secondary infertility is easier than primary therapy. Largely because in 80-90% of cases its causes are inflammatory processes in the reproductive organs or their consequences (adhesions). Therefore, treatment of secondary infertility is associated with the identification and elimination of the focus of inflammation or its consequences (elimination of adhesions using laparoscopy).
Only in 10-20% of cases the inability to conceive is due to other pathologies. Most often, endocrine diseases (hypothyroidism, pathology of the gonads), endometriosis or uterine fibroids. In this case treatment of secondary infertility involves taking hormonal drugs or surgery.
Absolute infertility is connected with anatomical features. Namely, the absence or abnormal structure of the uterus or fallopian tubes. Obviously, in the absence of a uterus, the only female infertility treatment option is surrogacy. In other cases, simple operations aimed at excising adhesions in the tubes, removing fibroids and other pathological formations in the reproductive organs can help.
Relative infertility in most cases due to the absence of ovulation or tubal obstruction. , Hormonal drugs or laparoscopic excision of adhesions in the tubes are also a treatment option for female infertility in this case.
Genetic infertility is more common in men than in women. It is associated with genetic errors in the formation of germ cells, which leads either to the impossibility of fertilization or to the fading of the fetus in the early stages of gestation.
If the problem lies in the disorders of ovulation, hormonal drugs will help solve this problem. If the impossibility of conception is connected with a male factor – infertility treatment options other than IVF will be ICSI/PICSI using pre-selected spermatozoa.
In the case of a genetic factor, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis is the “gold standard” for infertility treatment options other than IVF.
Immunological infertility is connected with the production of antibodies to the partner’s sperm by the female body. This is one of the easiest and most manageable forms. intrauterine insemination is a treatment option for female infertility in this case.
Endocrine infertility is associated with ovulation disorders under the influence of hormonal imbalance. Hormonal drugs may be a treatment option for female infertility with an endocrine factor.
Treatment of psychological infertility involves a visit to a psychologist of both future parents. With the help of a specialist, the couple is aware of and works out the psychological barriers that prevent the conception of a child with intact reproductive health.
In general, absolute indications for the use of assisted reproductive technologies are the absence of a uterus, ovaries or fallopian tubes; a large number of cicatricial changes in the uterus, obstruction of the tubes that cannot be corrected; infertility of unknown origin. In other cases, it makes sense to undergo treatment if your doctor speaks of a favorable prediction.
Infertility Treatment Methods in men
Infertility treatment methods with the male factor aim at improving sperm indicators or to the selection of active spermatozoa without chromosomal pathologies. Improvement in indicators is achieved by taking special drugs, diet, giving up bad habits, following the doctor’s recommendations. The selection of germ cells is carried out in the laboratory, the man is only required to give the ejaculate for testing.
It is recommended that the future father be examined by specialists at the same time as his partner. The following procedures will be required:
- Andrologist examination.
- Analysis for STIs.
In some cases, additional examinations will be prescribed:
- Testicular biopsy (if there are no spermatozoa in the semen).
- Tests for conditionally pathogenic microflora
- Genitography (x-ray examination of the vas deferens).
- Ultrasound of the prostate.
- Analysis of testosterone levels.
- CT scan of the brain (if pituitary pathology is suspected).
The spermogram gives an understanding of whether there is a sufficient amount of sperm suitable for fertilization in the ejaculate. Suitable spermatozoa are motile, without chromosomal abnormalities.
Important! Injuries, surgeries or even partial removal of the reproductive organs are not an obstacle to obtaining spermatozoa. With the help of a testicular biopsy, germ cells can be extracted even from a fifth of the testicle.
In case of poor motility but optimal sperm quality infertility treatment option other than IVF will be IUI. If a large number of chromosomal pathologies are found, then IVF in combination with ICSI / PICSI is indispensable. If there is that rare case when there are no spermatozoa suitable for fertilization, a donor biomaterial will be needed.
Important! Information from Feskov Human Reproduction Group reproductive specialists: each case of infertility is individual. Even two couples with the same causes of non-occurrence of pregnancy may have a different prediction due to age and other factors. Therefore, all that is really worth doing in order to become parents is to consult a doctor in time and follow his recommendations. Currently, truly insurmountable cases of reproductive problems can be counted on the fingers. Be patient, cooperate with the doctor and the child will definitely appear.